The ADA has distinguishes diabetes on the basis of plasma glucose levels. The tests for plasma glucose levels can be performed in the several ways;
Casual plasma glucose is measured any time, without regards to meals.
Fasting plasma glucose (or FPG) is measured when the patient has had no calories intake (i.e. has fasted) for at least 8 hours.
Two hour postprandial glucose ( or FPG) is measured 2 hours after a meal or after the patient drinks a solution that contains a specific high amount of glucose (called an oral glucose tolerance test i.e. OGTT)
Because of ease of use, acceptability to patients, and lower cost, the FPG is often the preferred diagnostic test.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes is considered as Autoimmune disorder, that is, it is a disorder in which the body attacks its own tissues. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and the body produces very little insulin.
Patients with type 1 diabetes must receive insulin in order to survive. Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes. This type represents about 5% to 10% of all cases of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes most commonly develops before age 30, often during the teenage years. Once a critical amount of beta cells destroyed and sufficient insulin is not available, the onset of symptoms can be very abrupt, over the days or weeks.
As blood glucose levels rise dramatically, patients usually develop the classical symptoms of type 1 diabetes like polyuria, polydypsia, and polyphagia.
Patients with type 1 diabetes are usually lean or underweight at the time of diagnosis. Long term complications over decades an affect many organ systems including the cardiovascular system, retina, kidney, and nerves.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes represents 90% to 95% of all cases of diabetes. In this type, a combination of core defects is widely recognised;
Beta cell dysfunction. The body is unable to produce enough insulin due to progressive beta cell dysfunction.
Insulin resistance. The body is 7nable to use 8nsulin effectively due to decreased sensitivity to insulin, a condition commonly referred to as insulin resistance.
These core defects are intricately related and lead to hypoglycaemia through a variety of mechanisms, 8ncluding inability of glucose to enter tissues of the body and glucagon-mediated excess hepatic glucose production.
About 90 percent of people with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes. It can come on slowly, usually after 40 years of age. The longer you have diabetes — and the less controlled your blood sugar — the higher the risk of complications. We may not always know how high blood sugar affects our health.
Read detailed information on warning signs and risk factors of Type 2 diabetes, here.
In early stages of the disease, patients often do not have dramatic classic symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, and unexpected weight loss that are seen in type 1 diabetes. Because patients with type 2 diabetes are often symptomatic, they may have type 2 diabetes for years before they are actually diagnosed with the disease.
Gestational Diabetes is diagnosed when glucose levels become abnormal during pregnancy in women not previously diagnosed with diabetes. Immediately after pregnancy, glucose metabolism returns to normal for most of these women.However, 5% to 10% of women continue to have type 2 diabetes postpartum.
Studies have shown that women have a 20% to 50% chance of developing type 2 diabetes within the subsequent 5 to 10 years after pregnancy that was complicated by gestational Diabetes.
It is important to note that poorly controlled blood glucose levels during pregnancy poses a risk to both the mother and the child. Desirable goals for blood glucose levels for during pregnancy are lower than in the non-pregnant state.