Obesity is the medical condition in which fats get excessively accumulated in the body. It is characterized by an excess of adipose tissues. Obesity has many effects on our body metabolism. It is believed that obesity increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes almost by 80 percent. How does the obesity increases the risk of diabetes? Lets find out the reason.
How does the obesity increases the risk of diabetes?
Seems like many type 2 diabetes people are obese. Consequently, obesity increases the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Below mentioned three points are considered to be the link between obesity and diabetes prevalence. They may lead to insulin resistance, Beta cell impairment and Impaired glucose tolerance.
- Dysregulated production of Adipokines/cytokines
- Ectopic fat deposition
- Mitochondrial dysfunction
In obese people, body cannot utilize insulin properly as body cells become resistant to it. As a result, glucose remains in the blood without insulin. More is the resistance to insulin, more is the secretion of insulin by pancreas to tackle excess blood glucose. It provides extra burden on pancreas. Insulin resistance is a syndrome where body metabolism gets abnormal.
In an obese individual, there is increase in the amount of Non Esterified Fatty Acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, pro inflammatory substances, and other substances. They are involved in the development of insulin resistance.
More is the resistance from cells, more is the secretion of insulin. Thus it puts pressure on beta cells to perform more. It leads to impairment of beta cells. Furthermore, deregulation of glucose levels.
Specifically, both insulin resistance and impaired beta cells leads to poor regulation of glucose in body. Impaired Glucose tolerance is the condition where glucose levels are above normal and the person said to be in pre-diabetic.
Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to release ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals, which can make the body less sensitive to the insulin it produces by disrupting the function of insulin responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin.
Body Mass Index
World Health Organisation set Body Mass Index as equal to or more than 30. BMI is used as weight standard according to your height. It can be calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2). The relative risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus increases as BMI increases above 23, study says. And it has been said that, obesity in childhood or young age may be the risk factor of early onset of Type 2 diabetes.
Obesity is associated with Diabetes. Both are on the rise worldwide. Weight loss has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardio-vascular risk factors in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.