What are piles? It's causes, symptoms, and treatment.

What are Piles? It’s Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment.

Piles is enlarged veins located at the junction of Rectum and anus commonly known as Hemorrhoids, Mulvyadh or Bavasir. With some instances, the tissues and veins in the Anus Channel become swollen and causes Hemorrhoids.

The Anal Canal is short and plays a crucial role in several ways. The blood capillaries from the Anal Canal get connected to the rectum through the Anus. Any pressure caused to the Anus region due to weight lifting causes Piles.

If unattended to on time in the proper manner, Piles get accompanied by bleeding. This stage causes unbearable and excruciating pain in people.

Symptoms of Piles

Piles is a chronic disorder spoiling quality of life. But if you see following symptoms then it is essential to concern your health expert.

  • Painless rectal or anal bleeding.
  • Intense pain, irritation near the anal area.
  • Trouble in bowel discharge.
  • Extreme itching, swelling, or a lump formation in or around the anus.
  • Fecal leakage or mucus or watery discharge through the anus.
  • It gives the feeling of un-emptiness in the anus.
  • Blood during a bowel movement. There may be fresh blood at the end of passing stools, or you may witness blood on the tissue.
  • You may feel a lump outside the anus.
  • Piles may cause itching in the region aka Perianal pruritus.
  • There may be a sensation of stool being ‘stuck’ in the anal area after a bowel movement. Rarely, there may be a dull pain.
  • As a complication, the Piles sometimes develops a Thrombosed Hemorrhoid. This clot may cause the development of sudden pain which worsens on sitting or during movement.

What causes piles?

It is exciting to examine the exact cause in every individual. However, the most likely reasons are as follows:

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Passing age can also be the one of the risk factors in causing hemorrhoid damage. Aging causes the supporting tissues of blood vessels to weaken. 

Nowadays, improper choices in diet and poor lifestyle are considered as one of the strongest reasons in developing the condition of hemorrhoids. 

Type of Hemorrhoid/Piles

Piles or Hemorrhoids categorized into two as internal and external Hemorrhoids.

Internal Hemorrhoids are divided into four subtypes based on their functioning. Let us have a look at the four categories (1).

First Degree Piles

  • This type of Pile remains inside the Anus.
  • They may bleed occasionally but never hang out causing

Second Degree Piles

  • This kind of Piles stay inside the Anus and come out only during stressful bowel movements.
  • They automatically get inside the Anus once the bowel movement is over

Third Degree Piles

  • Like in the second degree, piles come out of the Anus during Bowel movement.
  • However, unlike the second-degree hemorrhoids, they do not go back into the Anus all by themselves.
  • They need to be pushed back into the Anus after the bowel movement.
  • This is the advanced stage of piles which requires surgery to get rid of pains.

Fourth Degree Piles

  • In this type, the piles remain outside the Anus constantly and never goes into the Anus even when pushed using the fingers as in the Third degree.
  • They stay swollen outside the Anus causing problems for ordinary actions like sitting and standing. When the blood inside the piles gets clotted, they cause pain.

External Hemorrhoids

  • They are bluish colored lumps, located around the skin of the anus.
  • They are very itchy and painful.

Thrombosed Hemorrhoids

  • They form blood clots under the skin
  • Causes intense pain

Prolapsed Hemorrhoids

  • Internal hemorrhoids can leave the rectum and comes out of the anal body.
  • They cause more pain, itching and cause bleeding.
  • Gives the feeling of incomplete evacuation.

Haemorrhoids (piles)

How to diagnose it?

If you observe bright red blood during your visits to the toilet, it could be a warning sign of hemorrhoids or may have another underlying medical condition. Do not ever try to have over-the-counter medicines on your own. 

You should consider visiting your physician as soon as you find your symptoms are not relieving for more than a week. 

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When you visit your physician, he will ask about your symptoms and when you are noticing them. He will ask about any other underlying medical conditions. 

Depending on your symptoms, various examinations might be done. Your doctor will examine your anus to see whether it is inflamed, and whether enlarged hemorrhoids come out of it when you push, or whether they are already outside.

  • In a digital rectal examination, the doctor will gently insert a finger into the anus, with gloves and a little lubricant. The doctor feels the inside of the anal canal using circular movements. 

This allows him or her to examine the sphincter muscles and the texture of the membranes lining the anus. Doctors typically first feel for anything unusual. However, Grade 1 hemorrhoids generally can’t be felt in this way. 

  • If the doctor thinks you have enlarged hemorrhoids, a proctoscopy is normally carried out next. 

Here the membranes lining the rectum are examined using a short tube with a light and lens on it, known as a proctoscope. This will allow a doctor to see whether there are enlarged hemorrhoids, and how big they are. 

The procedure takes a few minutes and is usually not painful. The rectum needs to be emptied before the procedure is carried out. This can be done using a laxative, suppository or enema.

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If there’s blood in your stool, the doctor may also suggest a colonoscopy. The procedure is painless or may hurt little.

Piles Treatments

Many types of treatments are available for Piles depending on the degree to which the hemorrhoids belong. Getting rid of Piles as quickly as possible will help you continue with your routine life. 

It’s a good idea to seek medical advice if the symptoms are unpleasant and distressing. You could contact your family doctor. Things you could discuss with a doctor include whether surgery might help, and what other options there are. 

Laser treatment

Laser energy is used for the coagulation of Hemorrhoidal tissue. It is a non-invasive, painless, and cost-effective method and possesses fewer chances of recurrence.

Injection sclerotherapy

Injections are used to treat the piles. It might be considered for the treatment of grade 1 and grade 2 hemorrhoids. Sclerotherapy involves injecting a chemical solution to reduce the blood supply to the hemorrhoids.

Infrared coagulation/photocoagulation

An electric probe, a laser beam, or IR light have been used to treat prolapsed hemorrhoids. It is an effective method.

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Internal hemorrhoids or complicated external hemorrhoids treated with Haemorrhoidectomy. Its success rate is about 95% but there are chances of reoccurrence.

Stapled haemorrhoidopexy
The circular section of skin is made with the help of Stapling gun. It is less painful and effective method.

Haemorrhoidal artery ligation
It is used to treat grade 2 and 3 hemorrhoids. In this method, the rubber band is placed above the dentine line which blocks the blood supply. In rubber band ligation, the hemorrhoids are tied off at the base, making them fall off after a while.

If someone has grade 3 or grade 4 hemorrhoids, it might be necessary to surgically remove them.

How to Prevent them?

  • Eat high fiber food.
  • Try to eat less spicy food.
  • Drink plenty of liquids.
  • Exercise daily.
  • Don’t strain during defecation.
  • Do not sit or stand at the same place for more time.
  • Don’t lift heavy weights continuously.


Many people are ashamed of having enlarged hemorrhoids: They don’t like to talk about their symptoms, and might be reluctant to go to the doctor.

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Some might be afraid of having a physical examination or finding out that they have a serious illness. But seeing a doctor about your symptoms is important if you want to have the right treatment.