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What is an Anal Fissure? Know the risk factors & treatment.

Fissure

A fissure is a disease that affects the private parts of people causing pain, and embarrassment. The cracks or fissure signs are usually observed in the Anus region.

This tearing occurs when you face difficulty in passing stools during a bowel movement. An anal fissure or fissure in Ano causes pain and bleeding at the time of a bowel movement.

It is a common condition in both men and women. It is the most common cause of rectal bleeding.

Some common facts about fissure
  • The anus is the private part highly endangered to infections and tearing.
  • Fissure gets made when the moist wet area around the Anus receives torn thinly for various reasons. This tearing happened when stools of considerable size, hard and passed with difficulty.
  • Anal Fissures are enormous may cause unbearable pain along with bleeding every time during a bowel movement.
  • People who are highly prone to Fissures are young infants but still, it affects people of all ages for many reasons.
  • Most Fissures treatment uses simple medications and home remedial solutions.
  • Fissures that are advanced may call for a surgery

Symptoms

Following are the signs and symptoms for the anal fissure:

  • Intense pain during and after a bowel movement
  • Blood on a stool or on toilet paper
  • Itching and burning sensation
  • Bad odorous discharge
  • Frequent urination, and discomfort in urination
  • Constipation
  • Observable cut or tearing near the anal area

What causes fissure?

Many conditions cause Fissure. Such conditions may be standard or uncommon, but they ultimately result in Fissure.

Some such cases are listed below for clarity in understanding about the same.

  • Different types of Herpes
  • Anus cancer
  • Syphilis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Post-pregnancy effect and normal delivery process
  • Severe, consistent Diarrhea
  • Large hard stools that cause troubled bowel movements
  • Anorectal inflammation
  • Side Effects of Crohn’s Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome
  • Chronic Constipation

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Major risk factors

  • People who are prone to a higher risk of getting affected by Fissure are as follows.
  • People who are affected by Crohn’s disease which causes inflammation of the bowel and Urinary Tract.
  • Aged people due to lack of flow or slowed down blood flow into the rectal region.
  • People who have intercourse through the Anus.
  • People who suffer severe bowel movements.

Types

Anal fissures occur either at the front or on the backside. They are two types as follows:

1. Acute fissure

Acute fissure occurs abruptly and requires approximately 2 weeks for their healing.

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2. Chronic fissure

This type of fissures requires more time for the healing.

Fissure Treatments

  • Sitz bath
  • Anesthetic ointments
  • Adding more fiber content to the diet
  • Steroid medications through prescriptions
  • Despite the many types of treatment offered to cure Fissure, various kinds of complications can arise post-treatment.

Surgical treatment

To overcome chronic fissures, surgical treatment is considered more effective than any other medical treatment (1).

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Usually, doctors perform Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy (LIS) to overcome the fissure condition. It involves cutting a small section of the anal sphincter muscle to reduce spasm and pain and promote healing.

Pre-Surgery Instructions

  • Avoid eating, chewing anything 8 hours before surgery.
  • Take shower to avoid infections.
  • Wear clean and comfortable clothes.
  • Do not wear valuable accessories in the operation theatre.
  • Arrange a person for your safety.

Post-Surgery Instructions

  • Follow the physician’s instructions.
  • Perform simple activities like walking as it reduces the risk of clot formation.
  • Undergo Sitz bath after the bowel movement.
  • Do not use dry toilet paper, use baby wipes.
  • Use laxatives, fiber supplements to protect surgical incisions.

Most short-term anal fissures can heal with home treatment in 4 to 6 weeks. Pain during bowel movements usually goes away within a couple of days after the start of home treatment.