Hypertension therapy in Type 2 Diabetes

Hypertension affects many people with diabetes. Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that reducing the blood pressure of people with diabetes can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and nephropathy. Hence, it is very important to know hypertension therapy in the pharmacological management of diabetes.

Hypertension, usually labeled as a silent killer, is highly perilous to children and adults. The number of patients encounters hypertension is multiplying day-to-day. Since every research was done in medicine is to increase a life expectancy, which requires awareness. As it is a silent killer, do not show any symptoms till gets chronic. Awareness is vital to hinder its prevalence. Hence, before you call yourself fit and fine, learn the complications and beware of the silent killer.

In December 2003, the Joint National Committee on Prevention, detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure published recommended the treatment of hypertension. According to JNC 7 guidelines, the primary goal of the prevention and management of hypertension is to lower blood pressure in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

The goal for patients with hypertension and diabetes should be <130/80 mm HG, and the goal of patients without diabetes is <140/90 mm Hg. This would be accomplished by achieving and maintaining goal blood pressure levels while controlling other modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as;

  • Hypertension
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Obesity
  • Physical activity
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Diabetes
  • Microalbuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min
  • Age (>55 years for men, >65 years for women)
  • Family history of premature cardiovascular disease (men <55 years or women <65 years)

Treatment of hypertension often involves a combination of lifestyle modifications and drug therapy with one or more agents. Lifestyle modifications can decrease blood pressure, enhance antihypertensive drug efficacy, and decrease cardiovascular risk. Combinations of 2 or more lifestyle modifications can achieve even better results.

Ignoring the high blood pressure may further lead to serious health risk. Hence, it is necessary to take precautionary measures to control it. More focus should be on long-term ways rather than quick fixes to control high blood pressure. Here are 8 lifestyle changes you can make to lower your blood pressure.

Usually, a combination of two or more drugs is needed for patients with diabetes to reach the target goal of <130/80 mm Hg. A number of agents used to treat hypertension can be beneficial in reducing cardiovascular disease and stroke incidence in patients with diabetes.

  1. Diuretics
  2. Beta Blockers
  3. ACE inhibitors
  4. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB’s)
  5. Calcium channel blockers (CCB’s)
  6. Aldosterone antagonists

Diabetes may decrease the blood vessels to stretch. Diabetes may increase the amount of fluid in the body. Importantly, both conditions share similar risk factors. Generally, they coexist and the combination gets lethal which may cause a heart attack or stroke.

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